ANALYSIS of the reliability of over 300 London Underground ticket machines maintained by Cubic Transportation Systems found that 15% of the Giesecke & Devrient BIM2020 bank note identification modules were causing half of all malfunctions, and so needed upgrading.

To ensure reliability, 50 modules containing older BIM1000 sensors have been replaced with the CashRay 90. These faster and more accurate modules should increase reliability, and all machines will be upgraded once this has been demonstrated. An integrated cashbox can hold up to 1600 notes, and a continuously-updated database of counterfeit notes helps combat fraud.