Considerable investment has gone into fixed links across the Great Belt and Øresund, and the København Metro. Denmark is currently focusing on maintenance and renewals, and has ambitious plans for electrification, network and metro expansion.
Rolling programmes of electrification and incremental mainline upgrades have improved inter-city passenger services, with most of the network now fit for use by Pendolino and double-deck inter-city trains.
The sole railway, between Panamá City and Colón, was concessioned in 1998. Metro construction continues in Panamá City, with the first line opened in 2014, a second line added in 2019, and a third under construction.
Much of the network has become moribund, leaving the network handling only sugar exports through Mozambique and some imports via its Matsapha yard, but the Swazilink project could bring significant investment.
Sweden has focussed on network capacity and speed upgrades with some new construction, with long-term plans for new lines. State-owned, open access and contract operators provide passenger services, with frieght open to full competition.
Several major renewal and capacity upgrading projects have been given go-ahead, with the inter-city triangle around Oslo seeing the most investment; double-tracking of the 450 km network is planned by 2030.
EU funding has been refocused on maintenance and renewals of the previously underfunded legacy network, with upgrading for higher speeds and some ETCS Level 1 signalling. Network rationalisation is ongoing.
The first phase of the Doha metro opened on May 2019, and the Lusail City tramway is due to open in 2020. Further metro is due to open in time for the 2022 FIFA World Cup, with main line railways planned.