BRAZIL: BNDES has approved loans totalling R$177m for metro upgrades and construction in Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza, state capital of Ceará.

A loan of R$142m is destined to assist the ongoing project in Fortaleza, where a cross-city tunnel is being built to provide through running onto two converted suburban lines serving the suburbs of Caucaia and Vila das Flores (RG 2.99 p71).

MetroRio will use its R$343m loan to upgrade train control and ticketing on the city's two-line network. Some of the funds will help to pay for the implementation of smart card technology.