HEAT PUMP: Train operators in central and northern Europe could save €1000 per coach per year in heating and cooling costs by using heap pumps, according to Faiveley.

A compressor and two copper coils containing refrigerant extract heat from the outside air to heat the carriage interior. In warmer weather the pump transfers the interior heat outside.

An electric heater is still needed for very cold weather, but Faiveley claims overall power consumption can be cut by 50%, with a payback time of three to four years.