KAZAKHSTAN: The European Bank for Reconstruction & Development and KTZ agreed to develop an investment programme to reduce the state railway's energy consumption and CO2 emissions at a meeting on May 17.

EBRD will provide assistance for projects including an automated fuel control system, and will consider providing US$100 to US$200m to support the energy efficiency programme.

According to EBRD, KTZ is amongst the largest users of energy in the country, accounting for 59% of freight movements and 11% of passenger traffic. In recent years EBRD and KTZ have signed three agreements worth more than US$350m, complementing a US$180m loan to the government to develop the corridor linking China to Europe.